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The AXIEM document is rather straightforwardly constructed from the dimensions given in the article. The capacitive load and coaxial probe feed are discussed separately. The patches are supported by a piece of Styrofoam in the prototype. It has only mechanical supporting role, and no attempt is made to model it in AXIEM. All dielectrics in the problem are air. The ground plane is finite, and it roughly represents a handset ground plane in size and shape.

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In this project, all the same measurements given in the article are performed: reflection coefficient, radiation patterns at selected frequencies, and radiation efficiency. In addition, to highlight the ground plane role in handset antenna performance, a parametric study of the reflection coefficient as a function of ground plane size is carried out.

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Frequency response of the antenna is shown in graph "S11", due to both feed strategies described above. The reflection coefficient is shown also on Smith chart in graph "Smith", showing the characteristic dual resonance shape for the high-band.

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Radiation patterns

The graphs "Pattern XY", "Pattern XZ" and "Pattern YZ" represent the radiation patterns of Etheta- and Ephi -components at XY, XZ and YZ planes, respectively.

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Radiation efficiency

Radiation efficiency is calculated as a ratio of radiated power with and without resistive losses. The ratio is calculated under Output Equations, and the measurement used is Electromagnetic > Antenna > Sweep Frequency > SF_TPwr where one can select whether or not resistive and/or mismatch losses are taken into account. The efficiency is given in graph "Radiation eff" and it does not include mismatch loss.

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The message of this study is that the ground plane has a significant contribution to the antenna performance - in good and bad - and should be considered as a design parameter together with the actual antenna element.

EM Structure - Dual_band_patch_2170MHz

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EM Structure 3D - Dual_band_patch_2170MHz

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Graph - Pattern XY

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Graph - S11

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